Wiki isn't perfect, but it is a good place to start ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Middle_East
Basically, our European ancestors lived in barbarism for the first 2500 years of recorded history, while the NE/ME was making history (most of the firsts in almost every activity, including the first time a parent tried to bribe a teacher to give better grades to his son). The NE/ME continued to be a strong competitor to the rising Europeans (first Greeks, then Romans, then Dark Ages, then Middle Ages) for the next 1500 years. The NE/ME has been more or less in eclipse for the last 500 years (modern period), only starting to recover since 1950 (thanks to local nationalism and oil).
Egyptians and Turks at the west end of the region, Arabs in the Middle, and Persians at the east end of the region. These are ethnicities that have lived there for millennia, except for the Turks. The Turks came around 1000 CE, then the Mongols (who didn't last) came around 1250 CE, then the Turks came again around 1400 CE. The Turkish immigrants established a long lasting empire, the Ottomans. The Ottomans were the strongest Muslim polity since the early Arab Caliphate (which eventually broke up under internal and external stresses). The Ottoman Empire was completely broken down by 1920 because of European opposition and colonization. The decay of the European empires, due to WW I and WW II ... were essential in the recent rebirth of the NE/ME ... and the demand for oil.