That said establishing a set of rules and regulations based on executive orders is the mandate of any president, within the legal system, and from what i've seen so far it can be overturned by judges across the land, meaning there is more of a defense system in place to block and uphold standards within the american system.
It can, the problem is the Supreme Court's opinion reigns above all of them. So even if at the state levels you have judges willing to question it, and even shut it down for awhile, the federal government can either just change a few words in the law and re-institute it, or take it to the Supreme Court who get's the final say.
There is a check and balance in that it can be temporary slowed down, but no check or balance for, if it is really terrible, actually stopping it for good. And that swings both ways; sometimes it's great to have these checks and balances and sometimes it really sucks when something good is trying to be done and it's blocked.
As for American culture; I don't think even Americans can say they are anything more than an outside observer. I think Europeans and Americans as well sometimes don't understand just how big and diverse America is. We have several states larger than most European countries, and regions with some similar cultures larger than European countries as well. I live in one of those states (Texas), and even here it's like living in at least four countries, with each region of those countries having extreme variation in culture as well.
I think "American culture" is a huge misconception, because even at it's most basic level... you still have a huge gulf between North East Coast, Southern, Midwestern, Texan, South West and West Coast cultures, each one being extremely different politically, economically, socially, even in terms of what language (or languages) we speak. Unfortunately the way the system is set up, several of the one's that are the worst off in terms of economics and education are also the ones with the most power at an electoral level, while the states that contribute the most to the union are starting to feel more and more irrelevant when their popular vote is silenced and our money goes towards shit we absolutely disagree with and having laws enforced on us we don't want.
I realise this is an issue for European countries as well, but just... not at the scale we have it. The United States is exactly what it's name says... a union of States (that could practically be countries) all trying to work together. But like countries in Europe, they don't always think the same way.
Edit: I'll also admit, I kinda lost my train of thought there other than just "American" culture seems to be more and more in a state of flux, but it's less "American vs American" than it is, "Region A vs Region B vs Region C vs Region D vs Region E..." and that this is something that has been growing for decades now. It wasn't all that long ago that we had an "A vs B" culture conflict, and it seems to ebb and flow... and everytime it does, shit tends to get really bad in one way or another. And I say that living on the side of, and in the culture, of the people who tend to fuck shit up (the south/midwest/rural).